Start Time Research Appendix

APPENDIX School Start Time Research

This list of sources is taken from the Start School Later National site, and then categorized (with some links fixed)


We break down the research into the following categories:


  1. Academic Performance

  2. Safety

  3. Athletic Performance and Athletic Injuries

  4. Risk Taking Behaviors

  5. Mental Health

  6. Physical Health


Impacts on Academic Performance:


Impact of School Start Time on Student Learning. Hanover Research. February 2013.


Eric R Eide and Mark H Showalter, Sleep and Student Achievement, Eastern Economic Journal, 2012, 38 (512-514)


Brian A. Jacob and Jonah E. Rockoff. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments. September 2011.


Scott E. Carrell et al. A’s from Zzzz’s? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (August 2011): 62–81.


Finley Edwards. Early to Rise? The Effect of Daily Start Times on Academic Performance. Economics of Education Review, Volume 31, Issue 6 (December), 2012, pp 970-983.


Díaz-Morales, J. F., & Escribano, C. (2015). Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences. Chronobiology International, 32(6), 822-831.

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Lo, J. C., Ong, J. L., Leong, R. L., Gooley, J. J., & Chee, M. W. (2015). Cognitive performance, sleepiness, and mood in partially sleep deprived adolescents: The need for sleep study. Sleep.

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Hysing, M., Harvey, A. G., Linton, S. J., Askeland, K. G., & Sivertsen, B. (2016). Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: Results from a large population‐based study. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(3), 318-24.

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Baert, S., Omey, E., Verhaest, D., & Vermeir, A. (2015). Mister Sandman, bring me good marks! On the relationship between sleep quality and academic achievement. Social Science & Medicine, 130, 91-98.

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Schmidt, R. E., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). The relations between sleep, personality, behavioral problems, and school performance in adolescents. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 10(2), 117-123.

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Baert, S., Omey, E., Verhaest, D., & Vermeir, A. (2014, June). Discussion Paper Series: Mister Sandman, bring me good marks! On the relationship between sleep quality and academic achievement (Report No. 8232). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.

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Li, S., Arguelles, L., Jiang, F., Chen, W., Jin, X., Yan, C., . . . Shen, X. (2013) Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: A sleep series study in China. PLoS ONE 8(7), e67928.

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Perez-Lloret, S., Videla, A. J., Richaudeau, A., Vigo, D., Rossi, M., Cardinali, D. P., & Perez-Chada, D. (2013). A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: An exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 469-473.

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Maski, K. P., & Kothare, S. V. (2013). Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 89(2), 259-64.

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Vriend, J. L., Davidson, F. D., Corkum, P. V., Rusak, B., Chambers, C. T., & McLaughlin, E. N. (2013). Manipulating sleep duration alters emotional functioning and cognitive performance in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(10), 1058-69.

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Edwards, F. (2012). Do schools begin too early? The effect of start times on student achievement. Education Next, 12(3), 52-57.

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Edwards, F. (2012). Early to rise? The effect of daily start times on academic performance. Economics of Education Review, 31(6), 970-983.

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Carskadon, M. A. (2011). Sleep's effects on cognition and learning in adolescence. Progress in Brain Research, 190, 137-43.

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Jacob, B. A., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011, September). Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments. Retrieved from The Brookings Institution website.

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Gomes, A. A, Tavares, J., & de Azevedo, M. H. (2011). Sleep and academic performance in undergraduates: A multi-measure, multi-predictor approach. Chronobiology International, 28(9), 786-801.

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Ming, X., Koransky, R., Kang, V., Buchman, S., Sarris, C. E., & Wagner, G. C. (2011). Sleep insufficiency, sleep health problems and performance in high school students. Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine, 5, 71-9.

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Lufi, D., Tzischinsky, O., & Hadar, S. (2011). Delaying school starting time by one hour: Some effects on attention levels in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(2), 137-43.

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Kim, S. J., Lee, Y. J., Cho, S. J., Cho, I. H., Lim, W., & Lim, W. (2011). Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(9), 806-12.

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Carrell, S. E., Maghakian, T., & West, J. E. (2011). A’s From ZZZZ’s? The causal effect of school start time on the academic achievement of adolescents. American Economic Journal 3(3), 62–71.

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Pagel, J. F., & Kwiatkowski, C. F. (2010). Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels. Frontiers in Neurology, 1:125.

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Beebe, D. W., Rose, D., & Amin, R. (2010). Attention, learning, and arousal of experimentally sleep-restricted adolescents in a simulated classroom. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(5), 523-5.

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Kopasz, M., Loessl, B., Hornyak, M., Riemann, D., Nissen, C., Piosczyk, H., & Voderholzer, U. (2010). Sleep and memory in healthy children and adolescents - a critical review. Sleep Medicine Review, 14(3), 167-77.

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Gruber, R., Laviolette, R., Deluca, P., Monson, E., Cornish, K., & Carrier, J. (2010). Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children. Sleep Medicine, 11(3), 289-94.

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Dewald, J. F, Meijer, A. M., Oort, F. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & Bögels, S. M. (2010). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Sleep Medicine Review 14(3), 179-89.

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Buckhalt, J. A., El-Sheikh, M., Keller, P. S., & Kelly, R. J. (2009). Concurrent and longitudinal relations between children’s sleep and cognitive functioning: The moderating role of parent education. Child Development, 80(3), 875-892.

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Bergin, C., & Bergin, D. (2009). Sleep: The E-Z Z Z intervention. Educational Leadership, 67(4), 44-47.

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Willis, J. (2009). How students' sleepy brains fail them. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 45(4), 158-162.

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Ng, E. P., Ng, D. K., & Chan, C. H. (2009). Sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance in Hong Kong secondary school children. Sleep & Breathing, 13(4), 357-67.

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Stickgold, R., & Wehrwein, P. (2009). Sleep now, remember later. Newsweek, 153(17), 56-7.

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Killgore, W. D., Kahn-Greene, E. T., Lipizzi, E. L., Newman, R. A., Kamimori, G. H., & Balkin, T. J. (2008). Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills. Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 517-26.

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Golombek, D., & Cardinali, D. (2008). Mind, brain, education, and biological timing. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2(1), 1-6.

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Walker, M. P. (2008). Cognitive consequences of sleep and sleep loss. Sleep Medicine, 9 Suppl 1,S29-34.

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Warner, S., Murray, G., & Meyer, D. (2008). Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 31(5), 595-608.

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Yoo, S. S., Hu, P. T., Gujar, N., Jolesz, F. A., & Walker, M. P. (2007). A deficit in the ability to form new human memories without sleep. Nature Neuroscience, 10(3),385-92.

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Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323-37.

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Gibson, E. S., Powles, A. C., Thabane, L., O'Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., . . . Chilcott-Tanser L. (2006). "Sleepiness" is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6:116.

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Fallone, G., Acebo, C., Seifer, R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Experimental restriction of sleep opportunity in children: Effects on teacher ratings. Sleep, 28(12), 1561-7.

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Dahl, R. E. (2005). Sleep, learning, and the developing brain: Early-to-bed as a healthy and wise choice for school aged children. Sleep, 28(12),1498-9.

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Stickgold, R., & Walker, M. P. (2005). Sleep and memory: the ongoing debate. Sleep, 28(10), 1225-7.

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Fredriksen, K., Rhodes, J., Reddy, R., & Way, N. (2004). Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Development, 75(1), 84-95.

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Kamdar, B. B., Kaplan, K. A., Kezirian, E. J., & Dement, W. C. (2004). The impact of extended sleep on daytime alertness, vigilance, and mood. Sleep Medicine, 5(5), 441-8.

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Sadeh, A., Gruber, R., & Raviv, A. (2003). The effects of sleep restriction and extension on school-age children: What a difference an hour makes. Child Development, 74(2), 444-55.

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Drake, C., Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., & Pietro, B. (2003). The pediatric daytime sleepiness scale (PDSS): Sleep habits and school outcomes in middle-school children. Sleep, 26(4), 455-8.

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Shin, C., Kim, J., Lee, S., Ahn, Y., & Joo, S. (2003). Sleep habits, excessive daytime sleepiness and school performance in high school students. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57(4), 451-453.

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Steenari, M. R., Vuontela, V., Paavonen, E. J., Carlson, S., Fjallberg, M., & Aronen, E. (2003). Working memory and sleep in 6- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(1), 85-92.

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Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2003). Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: A critical appraisal. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7(6), 491-506.

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Mitru, G., Millrood, D. L., & Mateika, J. H. (2002). The impact of sleep on learning and behavior in adolescents. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 704-26.

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Epstein, R., Chillag, N., & Lavie, P. (1998). Starting times of school: Effects on daytime functioning of fifth-grade children in Israel. Sleep, 21(3), 250-6.

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Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875-87.

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Dahl, R. E. (1996). The impact of inadequate sleep on children's daytime cognitive function. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 3(1), 44-50.

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Thorpy, M. J., Korman, E., Spielman, A. J., & Glovinsky, P. B. (1988). Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents.  Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 9(1), 22-7.

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Achievement Gap:  Buckhalt 2011 Insufficient Sleep and the Socioeconomic Status Achievement Gap



Impacts on Safety:

  



Automobile Safety:


Vorona R. D., Szklo-Coxe, M., Wu, A., Dubik, M., Zhao, Y., & Ware, J. C. (2011). Dissimilar teen crash rates in two neighboring southeastern Virginia cities with different high school start times. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(2), 145-51.


Danner, F., & Phillips, B. (2008). Adolescent sleep, school start times, and teen motor vehicle crashes. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 4(6), 536-7.

Vorona, R. D., Szklo-Coxe, M., Lamichhane, R., Ware, J. C., McNallen, A., & Leszczyszyn D. (2014) Adolescent crash rates and school start times in two central Virginia counties, 2009-2011: A follow-up study to a southeastern Virginia study, 2007-2008. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 10(11), 1169-77.

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Martiniuk A. L., Senserrick T., Lo S., Williamson A., Du W., Grunstein R. R., . . . Ivers R. Q. (2013). Sleep-deprived young drivers and the risk for crash: The DRIVE prospective cohort study. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 647-55.

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Lucidi, F., Mallia, L., Violani, C., Giustiniani, G., & Persia, L. (2013). The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 51, 135-140.

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Vorona R. D., Szklo-Coxe, M., Wu, A., Dubik, M., Zhao, Y., & Ware, J. C. (2011). Dissimilar teen crash rates in two neighboring southeastern Virginia cities with different high school start times. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(2), 145-51.

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Pizza, F., Contardi, S., Antognini, A. B., Zagoraiou, M., Borrotti, M., Mostacci, B., . . . Cirignotta, F. (2010). Sleep quality and motor vehicle crashes in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6(1), 41-5.

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Smith, S. S., Horswill, M. S., Chambers, B., & Wetton, M. (2009). Hazard perception in novice and experienced drivers: The effects of sleepiness. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 41(4), 729-33.

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Landrigan, C. P. (2008). Driving drowsy. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 4(6), 536-7.

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Dahl, R. E. (2008). Biological, developmental, and neurobehavioral factors relevant to adolescent driving risks. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3 Suppl), S278-84.

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Hutchens, L., Senserrick, T. M., Jamieson, P. E., Romer, D., & Winston, F. K. (2008). Teen driver crash risk and associations with smoking and drowsy driving. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 40(3), 869-76.

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Keating, D. P., & Halpern-Felsher, B. L. (2008). Adolescent drivers: A developmental perspective on risk, proficiency, and safety. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3 Suppl), S272-7.

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Shope, J. T., & Bingham, C. R. (2008). Teen driving: motor-vehicle crashes and factors that contribute. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3 Suppl), S261-71.

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Groeger, J. A. (2006). Youthfulness, inexperience, and sleep loss: The problems young drivers face and those they pose for us. Injury Prevention, 12(Suppl 1), i19-24.

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McConnell, C. F., Bretz, K. M., & Dwyer, W. O. (2003). Falling asleep at the wheel: a close look at 1,269 fatal and serious injury-producing crashes. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1(3), 171-83.

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Feyer, A. M. (2001). Fatigue: time to recognize and deal with an old problem. BMJ, 322(7290), 808-9.

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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1998). Drowsy driving and automobile crashes. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/drowsy_driving1/drowsy.html

McCartt, A. T., Ribner, S. A., Pack, A. I., & Hammer, M. C. (1996). The scope and nature of the drowsy driving problem in New York State. Accident, Analysis and Prevention, 28(4),511-17.

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Pack, A. I., Pack, A. M., Rodgman, E., Cucchiara, A., Dinges, D. F., & Schwab, C. W. (1995). Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 27(6), 769-75.More information


Davis et al 2013 (pedestrian safety)


Other Safety Issues:


Wheaton, A. G., Olsen, E. O., Miller, G. F., & Croft, J. B. (2016). Sleep duration and injury-related risk behaviors among high school students — United States, 2007–2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(13), 337-341.

Kim, S. Y., Sim, S., Kim, S. G., Choi, H. G. (2015). Sleep deprivation is associated with bicycle accidents and slip and fall injuries in Korean adolescents. PLoS One, 10(8), e0135753.

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Lam, L. T., & Yang, L. (2007). Short duration of sleep and unintentional injuries among adolescents in China. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(9), 1053-8.

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Stallones, L., Beseler, C., & Chen, P. (2006). Sleep patterns and risk of injury among adolescent farm residents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(4), 300-4.

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Hayes, D., (2010). Impact of inadequate sleep on unintentional injuries in adolescents. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 21(3), 491-507.

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Li, Y., Jin, H., Owens, J. A., & Hu, C. (2008). The association between sleep and injury among school-aged children in rural China: A case-control study. Sleep Medicine, 9(2), 142-8.

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Millman, R. P. (2005). Excessive sleepiness in adolescents and young adults: Causes, consequences, and treatment strategies. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1774-86.

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O'Brien, E. M., & Mindell, J. A. (2005). Sleep and risk-taking behavior in adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3(3),113-33. More information

Valent, F., Brusaferro, S., & Barbone, F. (2001). A case-crossover study of sleep and childhood injury. Pediatrics, 107(2), E23. Full text


Kahn et al, 2006 (sleep and risk taking)


Hildenbrand et al, 2003 (sleep and weapons)


Graves JM, Miller ME, Reduced Sleep Duration and history of work-related injuries among Washington State adolescents with a history of working, Am J Ind Med. 2015 Apr;58(4):464-71. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22416. Epub 2015 Feb 24.


Athletic Performance and Athletic Injuries


Milewski, M. D., Skaggs, D. L., Bishop, G. A., Pace, J. L., Ibrahim, D. A., Wren, T. A., & Barzdukas, A. (2014). Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 34(2), 129-133.

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Carskadon, Mary, Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Children and Adolescents: Relevance for Athletic Performance of Young People, Clinics in Sports Medicine, Vol 24, Issue 2, April 2005, Pg 319-328

Lifespan. "Lack Of Sleep Can Affect Athletic Performance In Teens." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 May 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050511072041.htm>


C Mah, Mah K, Kezrikian E, Dement W, The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players, Sleep, 2011 Jul 1; 34(7), 943-950.


M Milewski, Pace L, Ibrahim D, Bishop G, Barzdukas A, Skaggs D, Lack of Sleep is Associated with Increased Risk of Injury in Adolescent Athletes, 2012, AAP National Conference

Risk Taking Behaviors


Lee, K. T., & Vandell, D. L. (2015). Out-of-school time and adolescent substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(5), 523-9.

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Combs, D., Goodwin, J. L., Quan, S. F., Morgan, W. J., & Parthasarathy, S. (2015, June 29). Longitudinal differences in sleep duration in Hispanic and Caucasian children. Sleep Medicine.

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Laracy, S. D., Ridgard, T. J., & DuPaul, G. J. (2015). Pediatric school psychology sleep and school functioning: Guidelines for assessment and intervention. NASP Communiqué 43(8).

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Meininger, J. C., Gallagher, M. R., Eissa, M. A., Nguyen, T. Q., & Chan, W. (2014). Sleep duration and its association with ambulatory blood pressure in a school-based, diverse sample of adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(7), 948-955.

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Hysing, M., Haugland, S., Stormark, K. M., Bøe, T., & Sivertsen, B. (2015). Sleep and school attendance in adolescence: Results from a large population-based study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 43(1), 2-9.

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Wheaton, A. G., Perry, G. S., Chapman, D. P., & Croft, J. B. (2013). Self-reported sleep duration and weight-control strategies among U.S. high school students. Sleep, 36(8), 1139-45.

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Pereira, É. F., Moreno, C., & Louzada, F. M. (2013). Increased commuting to school time reduces sleep duration in adolescents. Chronobiology International, 31(1), 87-94.

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Perry, G. S., Patil, S. P., & Presley-Cantrell, L. R. (2013). Raising awareness of sleep as a healthy behavior. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, E133.

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Buckhalt, J. A. (2011). Insufficient sleep and the socioeconomic status achievement gap. Child Development Perspectives, 5(1), 59-65.

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Hasler, B. P, & Clark, D B. (2013). Circadian misalignment, reward-related brain function, and adolescent alcohol involvement. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(4), 558-65.

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Clinkinbeard, S. S., Simi, P., Evans, M. K., & Anderson, A. L. (2011). Sleep and delinquency: Does the amount of sleep matter? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(7), 916-30.

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Zhang, S., Liu, X., Kim, J. S., Ouyang, F., Wang, B., Li, Z., . . . Wang, X. (2011). Association between short sleep duration and the risk of sensitization to food and aero allergens in rural Chinese adolescents. Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 41(4), 547-55.

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Axelsson, J., Sundelin, T., Ingre, M., Van Someren, E. J., Olsson, A., & Lekander, M. (2010). Beauty sleep: Experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 341:c6614.

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Ludden, A. B., & Wolfson, A. R. (2009). Understanding adolescent caffeine use: Connecting use patterns with expectancies, reasons, and sleep. Health Education & Behavior, 36(5), 1-13.

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Roehrs, T., & Roth, T. (2008). Caffeine: Sleep and daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12(2), 153-62.

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Impacts on Mental Health:


Owens, J. A., Belon, K., & Moss, P. (2010). Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(7), 608-14.


Liu, X., Chen, H., Bo, Q. G., Fan F., Jia, C. X. (2016). Poor sleep quality and nightmares are associated with non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

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Hysing, M., Sivertsen, B., Stormark, K. M., & O'Connor, R. C. (2015). Sleep problems and self-harm in adolescence. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(4), 306-12.

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McMakin, D. L., Dahl, R. E., Buysse, D. J., Cousins, J.C., Forbes, E. E., Silk, J. S.,... Franzen, P. L. (2016). The impact of experimental sleep restriction on affective functioning in social and nonsocial contexts among adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

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Short, M. A., & Louca, M. (2015). Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 16(8), 987-993.

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Lo, J. C., Ong, J. L., Leong, R. L., Gooley, J. J., & Chee, M. W. (2015). Cognitive performance, sleepiness, and mood in partially sleep deprived adolescents: The need for sleep study. Sleep.

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Segura-Jiménez, V., Carbonell-Baeza, A., Keating, X. D., Ruiz, J. R., & Castro-Piñero, J. (2015). Association of sleep patterns with psychological positive health and health complaints in children and adolescents. Quality of Life Research, 24(4), 885-895.

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Schmidt, R. E., & Van der Linden, M. (2015). The relations between sleep, personality, behavioral problems, and school performance in adolescents. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 10(2), 117-123.

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Baum, K. T., Desai, A., Field, J., Miller, L. E., Rausch, J., & Beebe, D. W. (2014). Sleep restriction worsens mood and emotion regulation in adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(2), 180-190.

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Winsler A., Deutsch A., Vorona R. D., Payne P. A., Szklo-Coxe M. (2015). Sleepless in Fairfax: The difference one more hour of sleep can make for teen hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(2), 362-78.

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Meldrum, R. C., Barnes, J. C., & Hay, C. (2015). Sleep deprivation, low self-control, and delinquency: A test of the strength model of self-control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(2), 465-77.

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Roberts, R. E., & Duong, H. T. (2013). The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. Sleep, 37(2), 239-244.

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Sivertsen B1, Harvey AG, Lundervold AJ, Hysing M., Sleep problems and depression in adolescence: results from a large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;23(8):681-9.

Vriend, J. L., Davidson, F. D., Corkum, P. V., Rusak, B., Chambers, C. T., & McLaughlin, E. N. (2013). Manipulating sleep duration alters emotional functioning and cognitive performance in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(10), 1058-69.

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Gruber, R., Cassoff, J., Frenette, S., Wiebe, S., & Carrier, J. (2012). Impact of sleep extension and restriction on children's emotional liability and impulsivity. Pediatrics, 130(5), 1155-1161.

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Hasler, B. P., Dahl, R. E., Holm, S. M., Jakubcak, J. L, Ryan, N. D., Silk, J. S., . . . Forbes, E. E. (2012). Weekend-weekday advances in sleep timing are associated with altered reward-related brain function in healthy adolescents. Biological Psychology, 91(3), 334-41.

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Dagys, N., McGlinchey, E. L., Talbot, L. S., Kaplan, K. A, Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2012). Double trouble? The effects of sleep deprivation and chronotype on adolescent affect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(6), 660-7.

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Pasch, K. E., Latimer, L. A., Cance, J. D., Moe, S. G., & Lytle, L. A. (2012). Longitudinal bi-directional relationships between sleep and youth substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(9), 1184-96.

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Lee, Y. J., Cho, S. J., Cho, I. H., & Kim, S. J. (2012). Insufficient sleep and suicidality in adolescents. Sleep, 35(4), 455-60.

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McKnight-Eily, L. R., Eaton, D. K., Lowry, R., Croft, J. B., Presley-Cantrell, L., & Perry, G. S. (2011). Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students. Preventive Medicine, 53(4-5), 271-3

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Beebe, D. W. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral, and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. Pediatric clinics of North America, 58(3), 649-65.

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Brand, S., & Kirov, R. (2011). Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. International Journal of General Medicine, 4, 425-442.

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Silva, G. E, Goodwin, J. L., Parthasarathy, S., Sherrill, D. L., Vana, K. D., Drescher, A. A., & Quan, S. F. (2011). Longitudinal association between short sleep, body weight, and emotional and learning problems in Hispanic and Caucasian children. Sleep, 34(9), 1197-205.

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McGlinchey, E. L., Talbot, L. S., Chang, K. H., Kaplan, K. A., Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2011). The effect of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion in adolescents and adults. Sleep, 34(9), 1233-41.

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Albany HS Resources:


Carrell, S. (2011). A’s from Zzzz’s? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3, 62–81.


Edwards, F. (2012). Early to rise? The effect of daily start time on academic performance. Economics of Education Review, 31, 970–983.


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Owens, J., Belon, K., & Moss, P. (2010). Impact of delaying start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 164(7), 608–614.


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2 Hansen, Martha, et al. "The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep." Pediatrics 115.6 (2005): 1555­1561.


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11 Wahlstrom, Kyla, et al. "Examining the impact of later high school start times on the health and academic performance of high school students: multi­site study." (2014).


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