School Start Time Research

School Start Time Research

The following is a brief summary of high level articles on school start time, and related resources.   It includes:

  • Medical Association position statements

  • Overview articles on school start time

  • Impact on Elementary Students

  • Impact on Total Sleep

  • Other Towns’ Start Time Research and Presentations Pages

We are working on an appendix ( with articles on sleep and its impacts on physical and mental health, school performance, athletics, and safety.

Medical Organization Position Statements:

American Academy of Pediatrics Press Release

And accompanying technical report.

And policy statement.

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Backs American Academy of Pediatrics call to start middle and high schools no earlier than 8:30 a.m. September 2, 2014.
American Medical Association. Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents, June 14, 2016.
American Psychological Association. Later School Start Times Promote Adolescent Well-Being (2014)

American Sleep Association.  Healthy School Start Times. February 7, 2016.
American Thoracic Society. American Thoracic Society Issues Recommendations on Healthy Sleep,June 15, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Most US Middle and High Schools start the school day too early. August 6, 2015.

Massachusetts Medical Society. Resolution supports starting middle and high schools after 8:30 a.m. December 5, 2015.

National Association of School Nurses/Society of Pediatric Nurses.

National Assocation of School Nurses and Society of Pediatric Nurses Consensus Statement on Early School Start Times.

General Recommendations on Start Times and Overview Articles:

The Children’s National Medical Center’s Blueprint for Change Team. School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. April 2014.

Kyla L. Wahlstrom. Examining the Impact of Later High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study. February 2014.

Paul Kelley and Clark Lee.  Later School Start Times in Adolescence: Time for Change. Education Commission of the United States. 2014.

Judith Owens, Darrel Drobnich, Allison Baylor, and Daniel Lewin. School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. Mind, Brain, and Education. December 2014;8(4):182-213.  

Judith Owens, Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults: An update on causes and consequences, American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol 134, No 3, September 2014   

A Wolfson and Carskadon, MA, A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times, NASSP Bulletin, Vol 89, No 642, March 2005, p 47-66

Adolescent Sleep Needs and Patterns Research Report and Resource Guide, National Sleep Foundation, 2000

School Start Times for Adolescents, Pediatrics, September 2014, Vol 134, Issue 3

Impacts of Start Time Change on Elementary School Students:

Appleman, ER, K Stavitsky Gilbert, R Au (2015), School start time changes and sleep patterns in elementary school students, Sleep Health (the Journal of the National Sleep Foundation), 1(2).

Heissel, Jennifer and Norris, Samuel, Rise and Shine: The Effect of School Start Times on Academic Performance from Childhood Through Puberty (April 20, 2016). Available at SSRN:

Finely Edwards, Do Schools Begin Too Early, Education Next, Summer 2012, Vol 12, No 3.

Kyla Wahlstrom, Elementary Feedback on Changed Start Times, Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, 1998

Hanover Research, Impact of School Start Time on Student Learning, February 2013

Lori Boyland, Michael W. Harvey, William Riggs and Barbara Campbell, Changing School Times to Combat Adolescent Sleep Deprivation: Perceptions of School Stakeholders, Journal of School Public Relations, Vol 36, Winter 2015, p 43-57

Impact on Total Sleep

Paksarian D, Rudolph KE, He J-P, Merikangas KR. School Start Time and Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Results From the US National Comorbidity Survey—Adolescent Supplement. American Journal of Public Health. 2015;105(7):1351-1357.

Hansen M1, Janssen I, Schiff A, Zee PC, Dubocovich ML.The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleep. Pediatrics. 2005, Jun;115(6):1555-61.

Wolfson A, Spaulding N, Dandrow C, Baroni E, Middle School Start Times: The importance of a good night’s sleep for young adolescents, Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 5:194-209, 2007

Dexter D, Bijwadia J, Schilling D, Applebaugh G, Sleep, Sleepiness and School Start Times: A Preliminary Study, Wisconsin Medical Journal, 2003, Vol 102, No 1

Lufi D, Tzichinsky O, Hadar S, Delaying School Starting Time by One Hour: Some Effects on Attention Levels in Adolescents, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2011, Vol 7, No 2, p137-143.  Download PDF from this page

Kirby, Maggi & D’Angiulli, School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents: A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence, Educational Researcher, March 2011 Vol 40, No 2, 56-61

Owens, J. A., Belon, K., & Moss, P. (2010). Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(7), 608-14.

Kyla Wahlstrom, Changing Times: Findings From the First Longitudinal Study of Later High School Start Times, NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 86 No. 633 December 2002, p3-21